Exam 2 review
Chapter 9 (9.5 - 9.7 remember - there wasn't much on hybrid orbitals on midterm 1)
- How do we determine the hybrid orbital set used by the central atom in a
- How many atomic p-orbitals are left over for pi bonding in the sp, sp2,
and sp3 hybrid orbital sets?
- How does hybrid orbital theory explain multiple bonding?
- What is meant by delocalized bonding? How do we determine whether delocalized bonding
- If two atomic orbitals (AOs) are combined, how many molecular orbitals (MOs) must form? How many
MOs result from combination of 6 AOs?
- What types of AOs can combine to give a sigma-type MO? A pi-type MO?
- Know the orbital ordering of MOs for homonuclear diatomic molecules B2 - F2 - recall
that the MO order switches at O2, and understand why this is.
- How do we calculate bond order from an MO diagram?
- What do bond orders of 1, 2, and 3 mean?
- How do we tell if a molecule is paramagnetic or diamagnetic from it's MO diagram?
Ch 9 suggested problems: 9.47,9.53,9.58,9.61,9.65,9.67
Chapter 11 (11.1 - 11.7)
- What is the difference between inter- and intramolecular forces? Which is typically stronger?
- What are some characteristic properties of the three states of matter?
- How does the strength of intermolecular forces compare to the kinetic
energy in a solid? In a liquid? In a gas?
- Under what circumstances does an ion-dipole force exist? A dipole-dipole
- What is the nature of the London dispersion force? From what does it arise?
- How does the dispersion force change with molecular weight?
- Be able to compare attractive forces for molecules of similar size and shape.
- Be able to compare attractive forces for molecules of similar polarity and shape.
- Under what circumstances does hydrogen bonding occur? Why are hydrogen bonding
interactions so strong?
- Why does ice float?
- Why is the energy needed to boil the liquid phase of a substance typically larger than the energy
needed to melt the solid phase? What is enthalpy? What is enthalpy of vaporization/fusion/sublimation?>
- Which phase changes are endothermic? Which are exothermic?
- What is the definition of vapor pressure? How is vapor pressure related to intermolecular forces?
- What is meant by the term dynamic equilibrium?
- When does a liquid boil?
- What is meant by the normal boiling point of a liquid? The normal melting point of a solid?
- Why would it take longer to cook mac and cheese atop Mt. Ashland than at Brookings?
- How do we construct a phase diagram for a pure substance?
- How do we tell from a phase diagram if the solid phase of a substance is less dense than the liquid phase?
- Know the significance of the critical and triple points!
- How does the critical temperature depend on intermolecular forces?
- What are the three types of cubic unit cells found in crystal lattices?
- How many net atoms are found in each of the cubic unit cells?
- Be able to calculate density of a substance given its unit cell type (primitive,
FCC, BCC) and the unit cell dimensions.
- How do we differentiate between molecular, covalent, ionic, and metallic solids?
Practice problems: 11.13,15,17,19,31,33,41,45,53,55,63
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